In-text Citations

How to Cite Resources
Within the Text of your Paper

[APA]  [MLA] [Chicago]


"You must indicate to your readers not only what works you used in writing the paper but also exactly what you derived from each source and exactly where in the work you found the material." (Gibaldi, 238)

In text citation formats generally work the same for electronic and paper materials as an intext or parenthetical citation refers the reader to your bibliography or list of references and that is where you will have the complete reference of the iteam and make the distinction of the type of resource.


American Psychological Association (APA)

For an intext citation you will need the author's name, the year of the work, and the page number the information you are citing.

  • Bronson (1950) notes since their muscles are so flexible, cats seem to bounce when they fall rather than break any bones (p. 32).
  • Books have been banned on many grounds, including political grounds which are sometimes invoked by democratic governments when banning a book that might affect the security of the country (Karolides, Bald, and Kova, 1999, p. 1).

If you do not have the author's name or names or page numbers, you will need to designate another part of the reference to be used in the in text citation. You can substitute the title of the work for a missing author's name.

  • When viewing infrared satelite images, the trees growing around Mayan sites are a different color than other trees in the same area of the world (Making Sense of the Mayan Collapse, 2006, para. 7).

When the number of authors is three or more or the title of the work is long, you need to cite the full information in the first in text citation and then you can shorten the title in subsequent citations. For example, Karolides, Bald, and Kova becomes Karolides et al in the next in text citation and Making Sense of the Mayan Collapse can become "Making Sense" or "Mayan Collapse" later in your paper.

For more specific examples on how to cite print resources according to APA, see the following:


Modern Language Association (MLA)

For an in text citation, you will need the author's name and the page number for the information you are citing. If the work you are using does not have an author or page numbers, you will need to use other identifying words such as the title of the work or a paragraph number.

When you have the author's name or names in the text, all you need is the page number for the in text citation. If you are just including the idea in the text without the authors name or names, then that is included in the in text citation. (Bold is used for illustration purposes and is NOT part of the standard citation format.)
  • Bronson notes since their muscles are so flexible, cats seem to bounce when they fall rather than break any bones (32).
  • Books have been banned on many grounds, including political grounds which are sometimes invoked by democratic governments when banning a book that might affect the security of the country (Karolides, Bald, and Kova, 1).

If you do not have the author's name or names or page numbers, you will need to designate another part of the reference to be used in the in text citation. You can substitute the title of the work for a missing author's name.

  • When viewing infrared satelite images, the trees growing around Mayan sites are a different color than other trees in the same area of the world (Making Sense of the Mayan Collapse).

See the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers or the following online guides for more specific guidelines.

  • Gibaldi, Joseph and Walter S. Achtert. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003. 
    Birnbaum Reserve LB2369 .G53 2003; Mortola Ref Desk LB2369 .G53 2003
  • For more examples on how to cite print resources according to MLA, see the online Bedford Manual or the online Little, Brown Handbook  

Chicago Manual of Style

There are two different systems of citation for citing items in using the Chicago style: the notes and bibliography system (used primarily in literature, history, and the arts) and the author-date system (used primarily in the physical, natural, and social sciences).

Notes
The notes system requires full publication information. In subsequent citations from the same source, you may use ibid. (from the Latin ibidem, "in the same place"). In a subsequent citation which does not follow the original citation from a source, simply include the author's name, short title, and the page number.

For example:

The early life of Martin Van Buren significantly impacted his political beliefs and in turn the political development of the United States. Van Buren accepted and even welcomed the idea of permanent political oppostion. Richard Hofstadter states that this belief "marked the longest single stride toward the idea of a party system" in the United States.1 He was the first American president born after the Revolutionary War. His childhood memories and experiences as a young man were the battles between the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists of the 1790s and early 1800s. Hofstadter claims that the battles between the Democratic-Republicans and Federalists in this period were "at least as real and decisive for the early union as that which had been successfully passed in the 1780s."2

Columbia County in New York State was decidedly Federalist territory yet Van Buren's father was an ardent Democratic-Republican whose tavern was used as a base for the local Democratic-Republican opposition. Overheard conversations of political squabbles cemented the importance of political opposition in the mind of young Martin. Even after taking a position as a law clerk with a local Federalist, he still maintained his party loyalty to the Jeffersonians.3

While the founding fathers deplored the spirit of party, Van Buren's generation saw the spirit of party as a "vigilant watchmen over the conduct of those in power."4


1 Richard Hofstadter, The Idea of a Party System: the Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780-1840 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970), 226.

2 Ibid., 11.

3 Joel Silbey, Martin Van Buren and the Emergence of American Popular Politics (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield), 2-4.

4 Hofstadter, Idea of a Party System, 251.


Author-date
The author-date system simply requires the author's last name and the date of the work. Include page numbers as when using a direct quotation or paraphrase. Author-date citations in the text must agree exactly, in both name and date, with the corresponding entries in the reference list, and there must be an entry for every text citation.

If you use the author's name in the text then you do not include that in the citation. Otherwise, cite the author and date in parentheses after the sentence.

For example:

Martin Van Buren accepted and even welcomed the idea of permanent political oppostion. Richard Hofstadter (1970, 226) states that this belief "marked the longest single stride toward the idea of a party system" in the United States.


For more specific examples on how to cite print resources according to the Chicago style, see the following:

The Chicago Manual of Style 15th edition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Birnbaum Ref Reserve; Mortola Ref Call # Z253 .U69 2003

Examples of Chicago Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools.html